For example, in some jurisdictions, child welfare legislation has been amended to require notification to/ consultation with First Nations officials when a child from their community is being placed into care or an adoption plan is being made for the child (See, for example Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, RSA 2000 c C-12, s 67). Many of today’s Aboriginal children and youth live with the legacy of residential schools every day, as they struggle to deal with high rates of addictions, fetal alcohol disorder, mental health issues, family violence, incarceration of parents, and the intrusion of child-welfare authorities. Indigenous methods value self-knowledge and subjective experience (Absolon as cited in Victor et al., 2016). Indigenous peoples “undoubtedly expect trouble from the police” (Neugebauer as cited in Perry, 2009, p. 3). Participants noted that the loss of Indigenous traditions, culture, and ceremony has meant that many young people “are not bound in your culture which makes a big difference.” As one participant shared, “I have a total disconnect from my heritage.” There was a sense from participants that Indigenous young people no longer have culturally appropriate direction, support, or an understanding of their own history as Indigenous peoples. Oh no we are just getting to know you”: The relationship in research with children and youth in indigenous communities, Do law reforms matter? With one exception, all of the individuals that made up the Advisory Committee, and those who lead the talking circle, had grown up on reserve. The aforementioned themes of Indigenous young people-centric, Indigenous community engagement, and the importance of history, tradition, culture, and ceremony, as described in the research literature clearly emerged as central themes in the study’s talking circles. Tensions, contradictions, and uneasiness of stories, and the resurgence of Indigenous societies. Their parents were burdened with significant psychological issues, which meant they could not care for themselves or others, did not have the ability to develop healthy relationships and, in some cases, passed on the neglect and abuse they themselves had suffered as children (Bania, 2017). These provisions, however, have not succeeded in eliminating the difficulties with overrepresentation, according to Dr. Cynthia Wesley-Esquimaux at Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. (. Repeatedly participants talked about internalized messages that Indigenous young people likely feel such as, “I’m no good ” or “We will always lose.” One participant succinctly outlined how without a sense of self, without direction, it is not surprising that something else may move in to fill the void: It wasn’t instilled in me, who I was. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The interactions with Indigenous young people (worldwide) and police continue to be problematic, antagonistic, and rarely positive (Brown, 2012). They create ethical guidelines for the researcher and the Indigenous knowledge holders related to informed consent, partnerships, academic integrity, equity, and benefit sharing. This crisis is harming the next generation of Indigenous youth. in jail, the Canadian government has failed to address colonialism and racism issues because this crowd is too large for the government to cater to it. The problem of Indigenous overrepresentation in Canada has been well documented in all principal correctional texts for several years, and widely acknowledged by the Canadian public (Roberts & Melchers, 2003). The following recommendations have a direct link to human rights and would serve as a valuable reference for all governments and agencies across Canada. The study cannot ascertain if different results may have arisen with more specific, targeted questions. McGuire, P.D. The causes of the chronic family concerns in Indigenous communities may be traced to decades of oppression and discrimination that have resulted in “multiple negative social and economic disadvantages”. An understanding was reached that publications that were derived from the project would be reviewed and approved by the Advisory Committee before being shared with the public or the Canadian government. The circle participants were a convenient sample that were likely self-selected (i.e., they were individuals who were likely already aware of Indigenous issues/concerns and were connected with key individuals in the local Indigenous community). However, as Schwan and Lightman (2013) argue, we need to critically assess how we narrate, characterize, and label the Indigenous experience. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? The one theme that was clearly paramount in regard to young people was that, “We need to get youth more involved in decisions.” This is in keeping with notions of best practice in regard to engaging Indigenous young people. The residential school system operated from the 1880 into the closing decades of the 20th century. By continuing to browse Weibe (2015) argues that “the mere existence of Indigenous people is an everyday act of survival and resistance.” This paper will close with two quotes, one from the circle’s Elder and one from one of the circle’s young people. Section 35 of the Constitution specifies that Aboriginal Peoples in Canada consists of three groups; First Nations, Inuit and Metis (NAHO). (, Ryan, N., Head, B., Keast, R., Brown, K. (, Stewart, S., Riecken, T., Scott, T., Tanaka, M., Riecken, J. The disruption of Indigenous communities, the forced removal of Indigenous children from their families and communities, cruel assimilation strategies that prohibited the practice of Aboriginal culture and language, and the experienced abuse in Canadian residential schools have “broken” generations of Aboriginal families (Corrado et al., 2014). Our survey of inmates revealed that Aboriginal inmates spend considerably less time with their lawyers. The Supreme Court of Canada has called the overrepresentation of Indigenous people “a crisis in the Canadian justice system” (Rudin, 2005, p. 5). It just reminded me how powerful ceremonies would have been if parents could have had them, how that would have molded us…. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Lean Library can solve it. Each of the aforementioned themes underscored an important and central message; that Indigenous young people often feel directionless, have lost their identity and sense of self. Indigenous community in community initiatives means developing close, power sharing relationships with the communities most trusted members—typically Elders or cultural knowledge keepers (Allen, Mohatt, Markstrom, Beyers, & Novins, 2012). The term “research” is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialisms (Battiste, 2014; Cunneen, Rowe, & Tauri, 2016). Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Each individual described the role that Indigenous history, tradition, culture, and ceremony had played in their own recovery or reparation of their self-worth. (, Darder, A., Mirón, L. F., Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S., Guba, E., Olesen, V., … Spivak, G. C. , (, Drawson, A. S., Toombs, E., Mushquash, C. J. The Ministry of Children and Youth Services (MCYS) should create a dedicated unit to advance equity for Indigenous, racialized and other. Now older people (are) making the decisions, youth have no voice. A young person was clear about the ongoing impact and connectedness of colonialism, the child-welfare system, residential schools, and the intergenerational impact of both: My dad came from an abusive home, CAS (Children’s Aid Society) took him away when he was four. In 2015–16, Indigenous youth represented a third of all treatment episodes provided by alcohol and other drug treatment services. Not surprisingly, Indigenous young people are confused about their identity. Before first contact, the “family” within Indigenous communities could be described as a complex combination of biological ties, customary adoptions, clan membership bonds, and economic partnerships (Grekul & LaBoucane-Benson as cited in Bania, 2017). overrepresentation of Indigenous youth was even more disproportionate among girls. Southern Chiefs’ Organization Grand Chief Jerry Daniels says “institutionalized racism” is the reason the numbers keep climbing. The Elder guided the talking circles in a holistic manner that is in keeping with Indigenous methodologies. The heritage of Indigenous peoples is not just a collection of objects, stories, and ceremonies, but a complete knowledge system with its own languages, epistemologies, and scientific and logical validity (Battiste, 2014). Therefore, sentencing reform or innovation “cannot remove the causes of Aboriginal offending because it cannot address problems like inadequate housing, substance abuse, lack of education, and scarcity of opportunities” (Anand, 2000, p. 416). Young people have always played an important role in Indigenous cultures. Some of the most systemically discriminatory policies pertained to residential schools, which resulted in Indigenous children being taken from their families and removed from loving parents, parental role models, and thus losing their cultures and their identities. In 2016-2017, Indigenous female youth accounted for 60 percent of all female youth admitted to provincial and territorial corrections systems (Statistics Canada, 2018a). INDIGENOUS YOUTH AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW 15 Indigenous people experience very high rates of a variety of physical and mental illnesses, which contribute to poorer quality of life and higher mortality rates. The government should commit to fully implementing the United Nations. Indigenous children were over-represented in admissions into care at 93% of agencies we looked at (25 of 27), with many CASs showing extreme levels of disproportionality. Over the past five years, the rate of Aboriginal youth (aged 10-17 years) under justice supervision decreased by 13.1 per cent (from 170.2 to 147.9 per 10,000) compared with a 34.8 per cent decrease among non-Aboriginal youth (from 16.2 to 10.6 per 10,000). 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